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Jazmine

he Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 (FLSA) was developed in response to pressure from industrial workers during the 20th century. One of the last legislations passes as part of F. D. Roosevelt’s ‘New Deal’ that targeted standards health, efficiency, and general well-being of workers established the most fundamental labor protections for American works (England & Alcorn, 2018). FLSA deals with specific compensation issues that cover minimum wage, overtime issues, and child labor rules. The FLSA does not address severance pay, sick leave, vacations, nor holidays (Minimum Wage, 2020). 

Minimum Wage

The minimum wage “is the lowest hourly rate of pay generally permissible by federal law” (Lussier & Hendon, 2019, p. 398). In the United States, the federal current minimum wage is $7.25 per hour that has been effective since July 24, 2009. Although this is the state’s minimum wage, some cities choose to create their minimum, such as Seattle, Washington’s minimum is $15 per hour. As much of a blessing, this may sound like it actually causes higher layoffs and cuts back hours for employees (Lussier & Hendon, 2019). 

There are two types of paid employees exempt and nonexempt. Employers who fall under exempt do not have to pay their employees the mandated minimum wage. Servers’ minimum wage is $2.13 per hour; they make most of their money through tips. They must make the difference of the $7.25 to be at the lowest wage. Servers, they have to earn $5.12 in tips hourly to be at the lowest wage (Lussier & Hendon, 2019). The employer must make sure that their employees can make the remaining of the money in tips. If the servers are not meeting the extra $5.12, then FLSA will force the employer to pay their employees back for the money they lost. Nonexempt employees are your more common employees that get paid $7.25. Failure to comply with FLSA laws will result in monetary penalties and imprisonment (Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 2018). 

Overtime 

            Overtime is “a higher than minimum, federally mandated wage, required for nonexempt employees if they work more than a certain number of hours in a week” (Lussier & Hendon, 2019, p. 401). FLSA requires employers to pay their staff time-and-a-half when working overtime. Both nonexempt and exempt workers are eligible for overtime pay after a 40-hour workweek. Although some departments average their overtime after two weeks, such as medical personnel, because of the number of hours they may work. Additionally, it is up to the employer to add extra benefits such as paid holiday, vacation, or extra pay for working weekends, holidays, or night shifts (Lussier & Hendon, 2019). FLSA does not limit the number of hours an employee should work during the workweek (Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 2018).

Child Labor

            There are many rules applied to children who work, mainly because of school restrictions. The FLSA protects children under the age of 18. Youths must provide age certification to work. Individuals who are found violating child labor restrictions are subjected to both criminal and civil penalties. Children who are 14- and 15-year old can only work 18 hours a week while going to school. They are restricted to three hours a day and can only start working at 7 am and end at 7 pm. When school is out of session, they can only work 40hour no overtime, 8 hours a day, and start at 7 am ending at 9 pm. Some jobs are cashiering, bagging and carrying out customers’ orders, clean-up work, etc. (Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 2018).

            Children who are 16- and 17-year old are not able to work in hazardous for youth. These children cannot work in a coal mine, forest fires, storing explosives, operating bakery machines, etc. (Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA), 2018). Children who are 18 years or older can work regular employment jobs. 

Christian Worldly View

Employees should get paid the proper amount for their work. This money they receive will pay for their living, children, health, food, and other resources. “Now to the one who works, his wages are not counted as a gift but as his due” (English Standard Version, 2001/2020, Romans 4:4). Employees are not lucky to get paid well; they work hard to receive money for their hard work. Additionally, treat your employees justly and fairly. Just because you pay them their due does not mean you are above them (English Standard Version, 2001/2020, Colossians 4:1). 

Reference 

England, K., & Alcorn, C. (2018). Growing care gaps, shrinking state? Home care workers and the Fair Labor Standards Act. Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society11(3), 443-457.

English Standard Version. (2020). OpenBible. https://www.openbible.info (Original work published 2001).

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). (2018). https://www.employmentlawhandbook.com/federal-employment-and-labor-laws/flsa/.

Brian

Expectancy Theory is the proposal that individuals will behave or act in certain ways based on the motivation that a behavior will produce a desired outcome. This essentially means that a specific behavior is determined by the resulting outcome possible from the process. In the world of Human Resources Management this theory focuses on the aspect that individuals have certain goals that can be used to motivate them to produce specific expectations (Luneneburg, 2011). The sequence associated with this theory is that effort leads to performance, which leads to a desired outcome and meeting goals. Through expectancy theory, an employer can come to several expectations. Those include that positive correlations between effort and performance exists. A desirable reward comes from favorable performances, which satisfies significant needs. Finally, that a drive to satisfy a need is strong enough to confirm efforts put forward (Lussier & Hendon, 2017).

The theory is based on four assumptions created by Vroom in 1964. Those assumptions include that an employee joins an organization with certain expectations to include experiences, needs, and motivations. Second, an individual’s behavior is correlated to their conscious choices. Third, people want different things from their employer in the areas of salary or job compensations. Lastly, an employee will choose from various choices to perfect personal gains. In the world of law enforcement this theory is very applicable, particularly the fourth assumption due to the income restrictions associated with the career (Jerde, 2017). To offset that income restriction, it is very common to incentivize an officer with benefits such as a take home vehicle, unlimited overtime, specialty training, and a unique retirement classification that pays out a higher dividend (Luneneburg, 2011).

Police departments are in the business of service, but they use Expectancy Theory very readily. Outside of the typical application a department often uses an officer’s drive to serve the surrounding community to ask for a higher output. This plays on the emotional grounds, which can result in a very positive correlation or negative one depending upon the quality of leadership.  Leadership in a police department is a vital choice and one that requires the guidance of God’s word. Exodus 18:21 of the Holy Bible (English Standard Version) tells us, “Moreover, look for able men from all the people, men who fear God, who are trustworthy and hate a bribe, and place such men over the people as chiefs of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties, and of tens.” This direction tells us to look for good people to be in control and lead under God’s direction.

References:

English Standard Version. (2020). OpenBible. https://www.openbible.info (Original work published 2001).

Jerde, Lyn. “’Wage Compression’ Challenges Sheriff’s Command Staff.” Wiscnews.com, WiscNews, 9 Jan. 2017, www.wiscnews.com/news/local/article_ec60bc87-35ca-58dd-aa45-7f0c1a915cd1.html.

Luneneburg, Fred. “Expectancy Theory of Motivation: Motivating by Altering Expectations.” National Forum, 2011, www.nationalforum.com/Electronic%20Journal%20Volumes/Luneneburg,%20Fred%20C%20Expectancy%20Theory%20%20Altering%20Expectations%20IJMBA%20V15%20N1%202011.pdf.

Lussier, R. N., & Hendon, J. R. (2017). Human resource management: Functions, applications, & skill development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. ISBN: 9781452290638.

Paul 

As this week’s post centers around compensation for employees, I’d like to expand on the definition and adapt that definition into the field of government employees. The stark difference in employees cooperate world, and the governmental positions are drastically different from laws, rules, and procedures that dictate how employees are compensated. During this post, I will be identifying the Equity Theory and how it applies towards the general compensation for non- governmental workers and how it is limited in the governmental positions. Once again, the world of fair and equitable treatment through pay or benefits can be manipulated in the civilian job market, but the governmental job market is drastically limited. 

Lussier & Hendon (2018) described the Equity Theory, which is utilized to motivate employees within an organization as a theory which states that employees are motivated when they believe they are being treated equally through performance measures, compensation, and comprehensive fair treatment against their fellow peers. This theory lends itself to faults as the employees’ perception of fairness may be motivated by various items. Even if the motivating items are presented and given, employees may still not believe they are being treated fairly. In other words, fairness is in the eye of the beholder, which leaves the employer to left guessing if production is being decreased because of disgruntled, unsatisfied employees who believe they have been mistreated. Huseman et al. (1987) identified that the employer who utilized this theory understands that issues of restoring equality may result in over rewarding or under rewarding individuals to even the perceived playing field. Furthermore, these researchers found that many factors depend on the type of organization in which the equity theory is applied, raising doubt that this theory can be used within a governmental operation. Researchers found that unions and restrictions presented by job descriptions especially involving governmental positions, highly restrict the use of equity theories for these types of situations (Johnson & Jones-Johnson, 1991)

            The equity theory applies to compensation in a variety of ways in the private sector. In the private sector, employee compensation is difficult to determine what is equitable and what appears fair from each employee to another. This is based on the employee’s perception, and if the manager believed the employee is being treated fairly compared to coworkers. The public sector is extremely difficult to evaluate if an employee is fairly treated and the employee’s satisfaction. With unions in place attempting to level the playing field, the governmental worker is left with under-compensation, most often with no rewards for above-average performance.

The Equity Theory involving police officers as governmental employees in no different than other governmental positions. The officer is often dissatisfied with their positions, and performance is often unrecognized. Moreover, the managers in these police departments are tasks with presenting compensation for subordinates without guidelines or precedents. Thompson (2009) argued that some form of Equity Theory could be utilized in policing. These roles have options, changes, and promotions, which can be used as a reward for job performance motivation. Additionally, Thompson (2009) identified that these incentives could work twofold as many times in addition to job performance, education standards, and officers gaining college degrees are utilized in a compensation effort many times through promotion or bureau changed.

Christian View

As Christians, a vital part of our beliefs falls into areas of the equity theory. As Christians, we believe that good things happen to people who do good things, and we dedicate our lives to serving God and all that our Scriptures tell us. Being treated fairly by others is not always the case, but we, as Christians, understand that we only need God’s acceptance to feel accomplished and fair happenings in life. Hebrew 6:10 reminds us this “For God is not unjust so as to overlook your work and the love that you have shown for his name in serving the saints, as you still do”(ESV). 

Summary

The Equity Theory is a viable resource for understanding compensation management for many organizations; however, it is limited in the public government sector due to unions, standardized procedures, standardized workloads, and lack of performance incentives due to police work nature. The Equality Theory concepts can help understand that employees must feel they are being treated equally and that equal treatment is genuine. Often in police work, the managers generally attempt to offer fairness, but this often goes by the wayside due to political pressure and interdepartmental favoritism. 

References

(2004). Holy Bible: English Standard Version. Amer Bible Society.

Huseman, R. C., Hatfield, J. D., & Miles, E. W. (1987). A new perspective on equity theory:

          The equity sensitivity   construct. Academy of Management Review, 12(2),

            222–234. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4307799

Johnson, R. W., & Jones- Johnson, G. (1991). The effects of equity perceptions on union and

           company commitment. Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector, 20(3),

           1–1. https://doi.org/10.2190/qhv3-uax2-2mwj-9fuc

Robert N. Lussier; John R. Hendon. (2018). Human resource management 3rd edition: 

             Functions, applications, and skill development (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Thompson, K. W. (2009). Underemployment perceptions, job attitudes, and outcomes:

              An equity theory perspective. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2009(1),

             1–6. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2009.44244108

Huseman, R. C., Hatfield, J. D., & Miles, E. W. (1987). A new perspective on equity theory:

            The equity sensitivity construct. Academy of Management Review, 12(2),

           222–234. https://doi.org/10.5465/amr.1987.4307799

Johnson, R. W., & Jones- Johnson, G. (1991). The effects of equity perceptions on union and

             company commitment. Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector, 20(3),

             1–1. https://doi.org/10.2190/qhv3-uax2-2mwj-9fuc

Robert N. Lussier; John R. Hendon. (2018). Human resource management 3rd edition: Functions, 

           applications, and skill development (3rd ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.

Thompson, K. W. (2009). Underemployment perceptions, job attitudes, and outcomes:

             An equity theory perspective. Academy of Management Proceedings, 2009(1),

             1–6. https://doi.org/10.5465/ambpp.2009.44244108

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