This theory argues that learning occurs by interacting with other people and observing people’s actions as well as the consequences of their attitudes and behavior. This essay explores Bandanna’s Social Learning Theory as well as how it helps us understand learning in the context of the classroom. Bandeau “discussed human behavior wealth a framework of triadic reciprocally. ” (Shuns, 2012, p. 119). Treadle reciprocally Is delved Into three components: the environment, cognition and behavior (Shuns, 201 2, p. 1 19). These factors are dependent on each other.
The environment influences cognition, cognition influences behavior and behavior influences environment. However there is variation in which is the dominating factor. (Shuns, 2012, p. 120). In social learning theory: Learning is largely an information processing activity in which information about the structure of behavior and about environmental events is transformed into symbolic representations that serve as guides for action. (Bandeau, 1986 as cited by Shuns, 2012, p. 121). According to Shuns (2012), the process of learning can be applied through inactive learning or vicariously.
Inactive learning Is performing an action and reacting to the consequence of the action. Observing the reward and punishment resulting from the consequence of a person’s actions are how people establish whether they should repeat the action in future or not. Learning vicariously occurs by observing other people’s actions without having to experience it personally. If the action performed results in a negative consequence people will avoid performing this action in at a later time and vice versa. (Shuns, 2012, p. 121).
For example, in a classroom if a child has not completed their homework ND does not receive punishment from the teacher the child will continue to not complete their homework. When other children observe this they too will not complete their homework because It does not result In a negative consequence. Modeling “refers to behavioral, cognitive and affective changes deriving from observing one or more models” (Bandeau, 1978; Shuns, 1987, 1 998: Zimmerman, 1977 observing others and imitating their behavior. (Shuns, 2012).
It can be categorized into three key functions, these are response facilitation, inhibition/distribution and observational learning (Bandeau, 1986 as cited by Shuns, 2012, p. 125) People often lack motivation and therefore do not perform skills and behaviors that they have learnt (Shuns, 2012, p. 126). Response facilitation refers to “modeled actions that serve as social prompts for observers to act accordingly’ 126). Response facilitation motivates the person to perform certain behaviors if the observer observes that the model has received a positive outcome (Shuns,2012,p. 126).
For example in a classroom if learners observe that a certain pupil is getting praised for answering questions , they too will imitate this behavior. Observational learning is a core component of Bandanna’s theory (Craig, 1992, p. 176) . Bandeau states that people attain knowledge in a more efficient method by observing others. He also states that once they attain knowledge “they can reproduce it almost immediately’ . However , though observational occurs people can choose whether or not to repeat that behavior based on the consequences The behavior one imitates is referred to as a model.
It is divided into three models, a live model, in which a person actually performs behavior, a verbal instructional model which would consist of descriptions y talking and a symbolic model which is behavior performed in the media (Craig, 1992, p. 176). Observational learning consists of four components. These are the attention processes, retention processes, reproduction process and motivation process (Craig, 1992,p. 177) In order to” imitate a model” we have to “pay attention” to it(Bandeau,1971 as cited by Craig 1992 , p. 77). A model has to appeal to a person and capture their interest because then it will enable them to pay full attention to it. If a model does not appeal to a person they will not pay attention and it will negatively affect their earning. For example in a classroom , if learners notice that getting high grades will give you a position of power in school such as becoming a class prefect , learners will pay attention in class so that they are able to achieve this.
The second process is the retention process. This requires you to retain what you have previously learned in a cognitive way so that you have the ability to reproduce it when you want to imitate the model. (Shuns,20120,p. 128) “A modeled display can be stored as an image, in verbal form, or both “(Bandeau, 1977 as cited by Chunk ,p. 1 28). T is a challenging task to retain information about activities that cannot be adequately described in words therefore imagine coding is essential(Shuns,2012, p. 128).
Through rehearsing and coding the information that was stored in our memory, there is a higher chance of recalling prior information than that of The third process is production. It involves “translating visual and symbolic conceptions of modeled events into overt behaviors” (Shuns, 2012, p. 128). This involves reproducing the observed behavior. In order to reproduce it one needs to practice in order to develop the required skills needed. For example in a classroom if A teacher does an example of a mathematic sum on the board; students would have to attempt it several times in order to master the skill of solving it.
The last process is the motivation process. It “influences observational learning” because the motivation encourages a person to interact more with the previous three processes (Shuns, 2012, p. 128). Bandeau distinguishes between the acquisition and the performance of new responses Even though you have observed the model you have the choice whether or not you will imitate the model. Motivation plays a significant role in imitating a model. According to there are different types of reinforcements such as “direct reinforcement”.
If a person realizes they would be rewarded by imitating a mode they will be more motivated to perform that same behavior. (Craig, 1992, p. 178). For example the classroom if a teacher rewards a child for performing their work by praising them and giving them a gold star , other children will observe this behavior and imitate what the child is doing so that they may also be rewarded. “People attend to a model in part because they believe they might face the same taxation themselves and they want to learn the necessary actions to succeed” (Shuns, 2012, p. 34). In a classroom situation , learners would pay attention and observe what the teacher is doing because they would want to attain the necessary knowledge and skills in order for them to be successful ,this serves as motivation(Shuns,2012,p. 134). Parents and teachers are generally considered “high- status” models(Shuns,2012,p. 135). Younger children will observe teachers as models and in a classroom situation if a teacher exhibits behavior that encourages learning o be a means of acquiring approval and skills , the children will imitate that behavior.
If a teacher does the opposite, learners will be discouraged and will not be motivated to learn. (Shuns, 2012, p. 135). Goals, values and self-efficacy play a significant role in learning. (Shuns, 2012, p. 138). Len classrooms if learners and teachers have a common goal such as completing a section of work or if learners have individual goals such as scoring above a certain mark on a test, it enhances “learning and performance through their effects on perceptions of progress, self-efficacy, and self evaluations” (Bandeau, 1988, 1997; Locke & Lethal, 1990, 2002; Chunk, 1990 as cited by Shuns, 2012, p. 138). T serves as a basis for learners to regulate their work and measure themselves against an expected standard. As cited by Shuns, 2012, p. 145). Len a classroom a teacher has to identity students values. This is especially important when teaching students how to set goals for themselves and in promoting self-efficacy. If a learner has this ability they will be able to learn effectively. “Values can be assessed against external and internal standards” (Shuns, 2012, p. 145). Children may observe some of their peers gaining a retain reward for neat work or completing neat work can be valued because it is how they gain teacher’s approval. Shuns, 2012, p. 145) “Self-efficacy refers to personal beliefs about one’s capabilities to learn or perform actions at a designated level” (Bandeau, AAA, Bibb m 1986,1993,1997 as cited by Shuns,2012, p. 146)). Bandeau suggests that there are “four sources of knowledge” with regards to “self-efficacy appraisals”(Craig,1992,p. 184). The first is actual performance. Succeeding in tasks regularly increases your self-efficacy and vice versa. The second is vicarious experiences. This is when we believe that we can succeed at a task because we see someone who has similar capabilities succeeding at it.
The third is verbal persuasion. In a classroom if a teacher praises a student and makes them believe that they are capable of performing a task that student will have a stronger sense of efficacy and will start to believe in what the teacher is saying. The last is physiological cues, wherein we interpret our bodies’ reactions to situations as a judgment of our abilities. (Craig, 1992, p. 184). “The models in one’s environment provide an important source of information for gauging self-efficacy. Parents and other influential adults (e. G. , teachers, coaches) are key models in children’s social environments. (Bandeau, Barreling, Caper, and Pastorally, 1996 as cited by Chunk, 2012, p. 149). Parents and teachers serve as important influences in children’s learning performance and self-efficacy. Students seek appraisal from teachers and if a teacher motivates their learners by praising them and helping them improve by using positive methods, the learners will perform better and they will be motivated to succeed. If a teacher uses negative methods such as punishing a child for not understanding how to complete a piece of work, the learners will view learning as negative and they will not learn effectively (Shuns, 2012, p. 49). Another example would understand the content, if a teacher does not understand the work and does not believe in their capability to teach the work the learners will observe this in a negative way and will not want to learn. This is known as “instructional self-efficacy’. If a teacher believes that they are capable of teaching the work effectively they will dedicate more time and effort towards planning and caching lessons in more advanced ways.
According to Bandeau, teachers who are supported by administrators and who have a high teaching efficacy will be more apt at approaching work with motivation and commitment. (Shuns, 2012, p. 150). Social Learning Theory is effective in helping students set goals and motivating them to succeed. In my opinion this theory is extremely effective and it presents models for students that enable them to observe work so that they may perform them later after they have acquired the necessary skills.
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