astronomy, answer these question in few words

READING–Chapter 1–Science and the Universe: A Brief Tour

Be able to put various things in our universe in order from closest to farthest, and from smallest to largest.
Explain the difference between the solar system, the galaxy, and the universe.
Talk about how big the universe is.

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READING–Chapter 2–Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy

Define the main features of the celestial sphere
Explain the system astronomers use to describe the sky
Describe how motions of the stars appear to us on Earth
Describe how motions of the Sun, Moon, and planets appear to us on Earth
Understand the modern meaning of the term constellation

READING–Chapter 3–Orbits and Gravity

Explain Kepler’s first two laws of planetary motion
Describe Newton’s three laws of motion
Define mass, volume, and density and how they differ
Explain what determines the strength of gravitt
Explain how an object (such as a satellite) can be put into orbit around Earth
Explain how an object (such as a planetary probe) can escape from orbit

READING–Chapter 4–Earth, Moon, and Sky

Explain how right ascension and declination are used to map the sky
Describe how the tilt of Earth’s axis causes the seasons
Understand how calendars vary among different cultures
Explain the cause of the lunar phases
Understand how the Moon rotates and revolves around Earth
Describe what causes tides on Earth
Explain why the amplitude of tides changes during the course of a month
Describe what causes lunar and solar eclipses

READING–Chapter 5–Radiation and Spectra

Understand the bands of the electromagnetic spectrum and how they differ from one another
Understand how each part of the spectrum interacts with Earth’s atmosphere
Explain how astronomers learn the composition of a gas by examining its spectral lines
Discuss the various types of spectra
Describe the structure of atoms and the components of nuclei
Explain the behavior of electrons within atoms and how electrons interact with light to move among energy levels
Explain how emission line spectra and absorption line spectra are formed
Explain why the spectral lines of photons we observe from an object will change as a result of the object’s motion toward or away from us
Describe how we can use the Doppler effect to deduce how astronomical objects are moving through space

READING–Chapter 6–Astronomical Instruments

Describe the main functions of a telescope
Recognize the largest visible-light and infrared telescopes in operation today
Discuss the factors relevant to choosing an appropriate telescope site
Why do astronomers use spectrometers?
Can we “hear” radio waves?
Identify the world’s largest radio telescopes
List the advantages of making astronomical observations from space
Explain the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope

READING–Chapter 7–Other Worlds: An Introduction to the Solar System

Describe how the objects in our solar system are identified, explored, and characterized
Describe the types of small bodies in our solar system, their locations, and how they formed
Be able to draw a map of the solar system.
Describe the characteristics of the giant planets, terrestrial planets, and small bodies in the solar system
Explain what influences the temperature of a planet’s surface
Explain why there is geological activity on some planets and not on others
Explain how astronomers can tell whether a planetary surface is geologically young or old
Describe different methods for dating planets (Tinder is not an acceptable answer, but perhaps OKCupid?)

READING–Chapter 8–The Earth as a Planet

Describe the components of Earth’s interior and explain how scientists determined its structure
Specify the origin, size, and extent of Earth’s magnetic field
Explain the difference between weather and climate
Describe the causes and effects of the atmospheric greenhouse effect and global warming
Explain the scarcity of impact craters on Earth compared with other planets and moons

READING–Chapter 9–Cratered Worlds

How big is the Moon, compared to the Earth?
Differentiate between the major surface features of the Moon: crater, maria, highlands, peak, ray
Describe the properties of the lunar soil, also called regolith.
Explain the process of impact crater formation
Discuss the use of crater counts to determine relative ages of lunar landforms
Describe the top three early hypotheses of the formation of the Moon
Summarize the current “giant impact” concept of how the Moon formed
Describe Mercury’s basic structure and composition (at least 10 facts)
Summarize our ideas about the origin and evolution of Mercury

READING–Chapter 10–Earthlike Planets: Venus and Mars

Compare the basic physical properties of Earth, Mars, and Venus, including their orbits
Learn 10 facts about Venus
Explain what the study of craters on Venus tells us about the age of its surface
Explain why the surface of Venus is inhospitable to human life
Explain how the greenhouse effect has led to high temperatures on Venus
Learn 10 facts about Mars
Discuss the main missions that have explored Mars
Describe the various features found on the surface of Mars
Compare the volcanoes and canyons on Mars with those of Earth
Describe the general conditions on the surface of Mars
Describe the general composition of the atmosphere on Mars
Explain what we know about the polar ice caps on Mars and how we know it
Describe the evidence for the presence of water in the past history of Mars
Summarize the evidence for and against the possibility of life on Mars

READING–Chapter 11–The Giant Planets

Provide an overview of the composition of the giant planets. Do not say that Uranus and Neptune are made of gas.
Describe the general appearance and rotation of the giant planets
Describe the composition and structure of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune
Compare and contrast the internal heat sources of the giant planets
Describe the discovery and characteristics of the giant planets’ magnetic fields
Characterize the giant planets’ wind and weather patterns
Understand the scale and longevity of storms on the giant planets

READING–Chapter 12–Rings, Moons, and Pluto

Name the major moons of each of the jovian planets
Planetary Fact Sheet.pdf
Explain what may be responsible for the unusual features on the icy surface of Europa
Describe the major distinguishing characteristic of Io
Explain how tidal forces generate the geological activity we see on Europa and Io
Explain how the thick atmosphere of Titan makes bodies of liquid on its surface possible
Describe what we learned from the landing on Titan with the Huygens probe
Define “planet”
Name new dwarf planets discovered in our solar system
Describe information about Pluto’s surface deduced from the New Horizons image
Describe the two theories of planetary ring formation
Explain how the rings of Uranus and Neptune differ in composition and appearance from the rings of Saturn
Describe how ring structure is affected by the presence of moons

READING–Chapter 13–Comets and Asteroids: Debris of the Solar System

Describe the composition and classification of the various types of asteroids
Recognize the threat that near-Earth objects represent for Earth
Discuss possible defensive strategies to protect our planet
Characterize the general physical appearance of comets
Describe the composition of the Oort cloud
Describe trans-Neptunian and Kuiper-belt objects
Explain the proposed fate of comets that enter the inner solar system

READING–Chapter 14–Cosmic Samples and the Origin of the Solar System

Explain the difference between: meteors, meteorites, comets, asteroids
Explain what a meteor is and why it is visible in the night sky
Describe the origins of meteor showers
Explain the origin of meteorites and the difference between a meteor and a meteorite
Summarize the physical changes during the solar nebula stage of solar system formation
Describe the main events of the further evolution of the solar system
Explain the two primary methods for detection of exoplanets
Compare the main characteristics of other planetary systems with the features of the solar system
Describe the geological activity during the evolution of the planets, particularly on the terrestrial planets

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