When it comes to special education, this belief really needs to be a true one because special education teachers will have to deal not only with behavioral students or students with high functioning disabilities but they will also be dealing with autistic students and students with severe intellectual disabilities (Grand Canyon University Course Material 2010).
With the basic teaching principle “all students can learn”, teachers will enable themselves to find ways to help the students in learning social and life skills, get prepared to be independent, get a job and to enjoy quality of life regardless of their disabilities (Grand Canyon University Course Material 2010). Individuals with disabilities can show their frustration with anger, they can feel hopelessness, helplessness and have a sensation of disgust, fear and pity.
Many times advocates, educators and even professionals fail by countermanding individuals with disabilities by not properly identifying the intellectual disability. The American Association on Intellectual Developmental Disability (AID, 2008) explains that Intellectual disability is defined as sub-average intellectual functioning but it also should include “resultant deficits in adaptive behaviors and its occurrence during the developmental period” (Grand Canyon Leistering Course Material 2010).
All three conditions must be present in order to determine that intellectual disability is present in the individual. Sub-average intellectual functioning offers to intelligence which is consider as a hypothetical construct difficult to define and is tested with a method called Intelligence Quotient or IQ which consists of several questions and problem solving that gives scores up to 100. Adaptive behavior refers as to the ability of the individual adaptation to the environment and the changes that may come with it.
And the third characteristic is the occurrence of a traumatic event which happens to an individual during the developmental period which is before turning 18. IQ tests are considered a reliable source of information but according to IDEA 004, “IQ scores can’t be considered the determinant of intellectual disability. Individual personal characteristics and circumstances, cultural bias and low correlation between IQ tests remain issues; moreover a person’s IQ changes over time and data over the test provides little and inaccurate information for instruction.
Consequently, other definitions focus on individualized needs for supports”. According to AID (2008) causes of intellectual disabilities which happens during the developmental period, may include maternal infections like rubella, syphilis and taxonomists also because of intoxication’s like rugs, alcohol, environmental hazards and incompetent blood type transfusions. Chromosomal abnormalities like Downs syndrome. Among others (Grand Canyon University Course Material 2010). Protecting Workers with Developmental Disabilities PAD (n. . ) say that people with mild disabilities can learn academics and vocational skills, those with moderate to severe disabilities can learn basic safe hygiene and self care skills along with social and communication skills and those with profound developmental skills can learn self care skills as well but they may need constant supervision and care”. The majority of the persons with disabilities are capable of learning, develop and grow, and they can become great productive an full participative citizens of the community.
With appropriate education and accommodated lesson plans all students should be able to learn. One way to teach students with intellectual disabilities is by providing them with real life representing materials which are appropriate and safe for their age as well as interesting. Provide students with information with clear and easy to follow instructions which is revised in a constant basis. Celebrate accomplishments with positive dieback. Whenever possible and according to the seriousness of the disability, try to teach the student is his regular school.
Teach students tasks and skills that they will use in real life in a constant basis so they can relate what they learned to the everyday life(Grand Canyon University Course Material 2010). Another intellectual disability is Autism. This disability was first name and recognized in a district in 1943. It is associated with a series of conditions that include According to Autism Society of America (2000) “Disturbances of developmental rates, and/or sequences, responses to encore stimuli, speech and language as well as cognitive capacities and capacities to relate people, events and objects.
This signs appear before the age of three” (Grand Canyon University Course Material 2010). At one time, autism was included in the definition of emotional disturbance. IDEA (2004) defines autism as an inclusion of serious impairments which include, verbal and non-verbal communication and social interaction. According to American Psychiatric Association (2000) “autism spectrum disorders include a spectrum of that goes from Autistic disorder, Aspirer syndrome, Retest syndrome, a event disorder, distortions, childhood disintegrative disorder, and Pervasive developmental disorder.
The characteristics include, apparent sensory deficit or hyper reaction to stimuli, Severe isolation or inability to respond to love and cuddly, self stimulation, tantrums and self abusive behaviors which raise the issue of aversive stimuli, calceolaria and psychotic speech and behavior deficiencies “. The possible causes of autism vary and go from one unfounded theory to an-other but according to well known authorities, causes are not known and but evidence suggests that genetics ND biological factors are key.
Very’ little is still known about autism and because of this fact, educators need to be careful in how they treat autistic students. A therapy which is supposed to be appropriate for the treatment of autism is dolphin-assisted therapy. It is recommended to provide autistic students with colored lenses to cure dyslexia and also facilitated communication. Lesson planning is key for educators to have success as teachers and help students succeed as well. Intellectual disabled students need extra help and clear one-on-one instruction but they definitely can learn.
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