Exam #2 Study Guide
· Chapter 4
o Define Descriptive Epidemiology
o Answers who, what, when, where
o Different descriptive study designs – define, compare/contrast, identify strengths/weaknesses of each study design
§ Ecologic study
· What is the ecologic fallacy?
§ Case Report and Case Series
§ Cross-Sectional Surveys
§ Serial surveys
o Kinds of data in descriptive epidemiology
Be able to define/identify/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following:
o What is a ratio? A proportion? A rate?
§ Incidence-density rates (person-time rate)
§ Attack rate (cumulative incidence rate)
§ Prevalence rate
o Crude and age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates
§ Rationale for adjustments
§ How to adjust
· Direct Method
· Indirect Method
o Standardized Morbidity (or Mortality) Ratio (SMR)
o Numerical methods to present epidemiological data
§ Measures of central tendency
· Mean, median, mode
§ Measures of dispersion
· Range, standard deviation
o Empirical rule (see p. 105-106)
o Measures of statistical association
§ Correlation co-efficient
· Chapter 5
o Descriptive epidemiology and person, place, time
o Why is descriptive epidemiology helpful for health care administrators and/or health education specialists?
o Population pyramids
§ Shapes of pyramids indicative of birth rates, mortality rates, socio-economic factors, etc.
o Dependency ratio – what is it, and its importance?
· Marital/family status
· Family structure
· How can utilize data based on place?
§ Time trends – compare/contrast
· Secular trends
· Cyclic patterns
· Season trends
· Chapter 6 – General Health and Population Indicators
Be able to identify/define/calculate (where applicable) and interpret the following health indicators:
§ Birth rate
§ Fertility rate
§ Total fertility rate
§ Contraceptive prevalence
§ Three things that generally cause death (see p. 159)
§ Who certifies a death?
§ Cause of death and death certificate data
· What data are on a death certificate?
§ Types of mortality rates
· Crude mortality rate
· Cause-specific mortality rate
§ Infant mortality rate
· Why is this a major health status indicator?
· Neonatal mortality rate –
o Post neonatal mortality rate
o Perinatal mortality rate
· Fetal death rate (stillbirth)
§ Abortion rate
§ Maternal mortality rate – Why is this a major health status indicator?
§ Proportional mortality ratio (PMR)
§ Case fatality ratio (CFR)
§ Years of Potential Life Lost (YPLL)
· How to calculate YPLL?
· YPLL Rate – why use YPLL rate?
Delivering a high-quality product at a reasonable price is not enough anymore.
That’s why we have developed 5 beneficial guarantees that will make your experience with our service enjoyable, easy, and safe.
You have to be 100% sure of the quality of your product to give a money-back guarantee. This describes us perfectly. Make sure that this guarantee is totally transparent.Read more
Each paper is composed from scratch, according to your instructions. It is then checked by our plagiarism-detection software. There is no gap where plagiarism could squeeze in.Read more
Thanks to our free revisions, there is no way for you to be unsatisfied. We will work on your paper until you are completely happy with the result.Read more
Your email is safe, as we store it according to international data protection rules. Your bank details are secure, as we use only reliable payment systems.Read more
By sending us your money, you buy the service we provide. Check out our terms and conditions if you prefer business talks to be laid out in official language.Read more