Literature review

  

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Completing a literature review requires higher order and critical thinking skills. In a literature review, you extract themes and key information, and synthesize them to illustrate your point. 

you selected four articles about a topic, you then organized the information about the four articles by identifying and summarizing them. In essence, you completed the first step of a mini literature review.

In this Assignment, you complete the next step of a mini literature review by critically analyzing the information you have gathered.

In Discussion 1, you answered the question: What information is available on the issue and what does it say? In this Assignment, you want to answer questions such as: What themes can I identify? How does this information relate to the issue I am exploring? What information is most important, and why? What problem(s) related to the issue the authors address? What problems still need to be addressed?

To prepare for this Assignment, review related to literature reviews. 

Submit a 4 page literature review based on the four articles you collected. Be sure your literature review reflects the questions posed in the opening paragraphs of this Assignment.

Literature reviews

Lawson, G., Trepal, H. C., R. W.., & Kress, V. (2017). Advocating for educational standards in counselor licensure laws. Counselor Education and Supervision, 56(3), 162-176.

Standards defines the skills and knowledge that students must possess in order to be fully prepared for school, life after graduation and work. These standards are what have pushed educational reforms. Furthermore, educational standards ensure that education is not restricted but rather, given to all despite of their conditions. Educational standards are therefore important in measuring educational achievement and in setting measurable and clear goals

Thrupp, M/ (2017). The search for better educational standards: A cautionary tale. Springer.

Educational standards are the most effective tools that ensure that students at all level receive quality education. It is more effective to adopt national standards as these standards dictate uniformity across the entire nation as opposed to district and state specific standards.

Tarman, B. (2016). Innovation and education. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 1(1).

Teachers require to be trained about the new standards that are being implemented to ensure that they conform to them. Trainings can be offered in person or training materials can be provided. The materials include manuals and guides that support the implementation of the standards. Most of the educational standards that are being developed and implemented currently support innovation through education.

Burks, B. A., Beziat, T. L., Danley, S., Davis. K., Lowery, H., & Lucas, J. (2015). Adapting to change: Teacher perceptions of implementing the Common Core State Standards. Education, 136(2), 253-258.

The Common Core Standards was developed by state education chiefs and governors of the 48 states. This standard was set to ensure that students, through their academic journey from kindergarten are introduced to credit bearing courses that prepare them for college education. The teachers were the voice behind the development of these standards. Teachers and most stakeholders who include government leaders, teachers and principals feel that adopting and implementing new standards in education pushes educational reforms that emphasize on providing quality education to the students while preparing them for their future in the job market.

Reflective Evaluation

The research organizer tool is effective. It highlights the main points required when organizing and summarizing a research paper. The research organizer tool makes use of the time constraint enabling the user to maximize on the little time they have to get the best information. The modifications that I would have made is to include the results of the research on the paper. This is beneficial in that it enables the writers to give a clear indication of the outcome to be expected. 

References

Burks, B. A., Beziat, T. L., Danley, S., Davis. K., Lowery, H., & Lucas, J. (2015). Adapting to change: Teacher perceptions of implementing the Common Core State Standards. Education, 136(2), 253-258.

Lawson, G., Trepal, H. C., R. W.., & Kress, V. (2017). Advocating for educational standards in counselor licensure laws. Counselor Education and Supervision, 56(3), 162-176.

Tarman, B. (2016). Innovation and education. Research in Social Sciences and Technology, 1(1).

Thrupp, M/ (2017). The search for better educational standards: A cautionary tale. Springer.

Example Outline

I. Introduction

A. Current Problem: Educational attainment rates are decreasing in the United States while healthcare costs are increasing.
B. Population/Area of Focus: Unskilled or low-skilled adult workers
C. Key Terms:  healthy, well-educated
 

Thesis Statement: Because of their income deficit (cite sources) and general susceptibility to depression (cite sources), students who drop out of high school before graduation maintain a higher risk for physical and mental health problems later in life.

II. Background

A. Historical Employment Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were frequently unionized and adequately compensated for their work (cite sources).
B. Historical Healthcare Overview: Unskilled laborers in the past were often provided adequate healthcare and benefits (cite sources).
C. Current Link between Education and Employment Type: Increasingly, uneducated workers work in unskilled or low-skilled jobs (cite sources).
D. Gaps in the Research: Little information exists exploring the health implications of the current conditions in low-skilled jobs.

III. Major Point 1:  Conditions of employment affect workers’ physical health. 

A. Minor Point 1: Unskilled work environments are correlated highly with worker injury (cite sources).
B. Minor Point 2: Unskilled work environments rarely provide healthcare or adequate injury recovery time (cite sources).

IV. Major Point 2: Conditions of employment affect workers’ mental health

A. Minor Point 1: Employment in a low-skilled position is highly correlated with dangerous levels of stress (cite sources).
B. Minor Point 2: Stress is highly correlated with mental health issues (cite sources).

V. Major Point 3: Physical  health and mental health correlate directly with one another.

A. Minor Point 1: Mental health problems and physical health problems are highly correlated (cite sources).
B. Minor Point 2: Stress manifests itself in physical form (cite sources)

VI. Major Point 4: People with more financial worries have more stress and worse physical health.

A. Minor Point 1: Many high-school dropouts face financial problems (cite sources).
B. Minor Point 2: Financial problems are often correlated with unhealthy lifestyle choices such unhealthy food choices, overconsumption/abuse of alcohol, chain smoking, abusive relationships, etc. (cite sources).

VII. Conclusion

A. Restatement of Thesis:  Students who drop out of high school are at a higher risk for both mental and physical health problems throughout their lives.
B. Next Steps:  Society needs educational advocates; educators need to be aware of this situation and strive for student retention in order to promote healthy lifestyles and warn students of the risks associated with dropping out of school.

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