Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas

Name: John Kindley| Class: GH AP Y (Even)| Date: November 3rd, 2012| Chapter 12, Peoples and Civilizations of the Americas, 200 – 1500| Pages 306 – 331| | Classic-Era Culture and Society in Mesoamerica, 200 – 900:| | * Remarkable civilization created| | * Different language + politics, but unified by material culture, religious beliefs + practices, and social structure| Classic Period| * Classic period (built upon Olmec and other civilizations)| | * Social classes with distinct roles| * Hereditary politics + religious elites controlled towns + villages| | Teotihuacan:| | * Powerful city-state in central Mexico (100 B. C. E. – 750 C. E. )| Religion| * Religion = worshipped many gods + lesser spirits, Sun + Moon| | * Human sacrifice = viewed as sacred duty to the gods and essential| | to the well-being of society| Farming| * Chinampas = raised fields along lakeshores to increase agriculture| Politics| * No evidence for single ruler; alliances between elite families| | The Maya:|
Location| * Maya = civilization concentrated in the Yucatan Peninsula, | | Guatemala, and Honduras, but never unified| | * Contributed mainly in math, astronomy, and the calendar| | * High pyramids + palaces = meant to awe the masses that came| Decoration| * Maya = loved decoration| | * Infused warfare with religious meaning| | * Society = patrilineal| Contributions| * Devised elaborate calendar system, concept of 0, and writing| End of Classic Era| * Maya cities declined due to struggle for resources, which lead to| | class conflict and warfare| | | | | | | | | | * Connection with the Mesoamerican societies due to learning about the Aztecs in grade 8| * Have visited Mayan cities in Mexico, and have seen temples in real life| * Question: didn’t the Arabs develop the concept of 0? | | | | The Postclassic Period in Mesoamerica, 900 – 1500:| | * No single explanation for fall of Teotihuacan and Mayan centers| | The Toltecs:| | * Powerful postclassic empire in central Mexico (900 – 1175 C. E. )| Origins| * Origins = unknown (either satellite or migrant populations)| | * Used military conquest to create powerful empire|
Reason for decline| * Fell by internal power struggles and military threat from the north| | The Aztecs:| | * Altepetl = ethnic state in ancient Mesoamerica that was the | | common political building block of that region| Society + Politics| * Calpolli = group of up to hundred families that served as a building| | block of an altepetl (controlled land allocation + taxes + local religious life)| | * Tenochtitlan = capital of Aztec Empire; in an island in lake Texcoco| | Mexico City created on ruins of Tenochtitlan| * Aztecs = AKA Mexica, created empire (1325 – 1521 C. E. )| | * Aztecs forced defeated peoples to provide goods + labor as tax| Aztec Women| * Women = held lots of power; held in high esteem; held positions| | like teachers and priestesses; seen as founders of lineages, including| | the royal line| | * Merchants become rich, but cannot become high nobility| Economic systems| * Tribute system = system in which defeated peoples were forced to| | pay tax in forms of goods and labor; help development of large ities | | * Did not use money; used barter instead| | * Aztec religion = demanded increasing numbers of human sacrifice| * Connection to Aztecs as I learned about them in grade 8| * Noted the familiarities between the Mesoamerican societies, which also had distinct| differences as well| | | | Northern Peoples:| | * Classic period ends around 900 C. E. | | * Transfer of irrigation and corn agriculture -> stimulated development in Hohokam and Anasazi society| | Southwestern Desert Cultures:| | * Anasazi = important culture in southwest US (700 – 1300 C.

E. )| | * Anasazi built multistory residences, and worshipped in | | subterranean buildings (called kivas)| Anasazi women| * Women = shared agricultural tasks, specialists in many crafts, | | responsible for food preparation and childcare| Anasazi region| * Anasazi = concentrate in Four Corners region| | Mound Builders: The Hopewell and Mississippian Cultures:| Political structure| * Chiefdom = form of political organization; ruled by hereditary leader| (Chiefdom)| who had control over collection of villages + towns; based on gift giving | | and commercial links| * Political organization + trade + mound building continued by the| | Mississippian culture (largest city = Cahokia)| Ansazi +| * Environmental changes caused destruction of Anasazi +| Mississippian| Mississippian cultures| Decline| | | | | Andean Civilizations, 200 – 1500| | * Environment = sucks for creating civilization| | * Amerindian peoples of Andean = produced some of the most| | socially complex + politically advanced societies in Western Hemisphere | | Cultural Response to Environmental Challenge|
How they adapted| * Domestication of llamas and alpacas| | * Farmed at different altitudes to reduce risks from frosts| Social + political | * Ayllu = Andean lineage group or kin-based community| groups| * Ayllu = foundation for Andean achievement; members = obligated| | to help fellow members (thought as brothers and sisters)| | * Mit’a = Andean labor system based on shared obligations to help| | kinsmen and work on behalf of the ruler and religious organizations | Gender distinction| * Men = hunting, military service, government| | * Women = textile production, agriculture, home| Harsh climates of Andean civilizations = similar to harsh environment of North American| settlers | * Anasazi + Mississippian culture = one of few civilizations that did not fall due to outside| pressures| | | Moche:| | * Moche = civilization of north coast of Peru (200 – 700 C. E. )| | * Built extensive irrigation networks + impressive urban centers| | dominated by brick temples| Political + social| * Did not establish formal empire nor unified political structure| structure| * Moche society = theocratic + stratified; priests + military leaders | | had concentrated wealth + power|
Decline of Moche| * Moche centers declined due to long-term climate changes| | * Wari = new military power, culturally linked to Tiwanaku| | * Wari contributed to the disappearance of the Moche| | Tiwanaku and Wari:| | * Tiwanaku = name of capital city and empire centered on the region| | near Lake Titicaca in modern Bolivia (375 – 1000 C. E. )| | * Llamas = crucial for maintenance of long-distance trade relations| | * High quality of stone masonry| * Stratified society ruled by a hereditary elite| | * Used military to extend their power over large religions | | The Inca:| | * Largest and most powerful Andean empire (Cuzco = capital)| | * Initially a chiefdom -> turned in to military expansion in 1430s| | * Inca prosperity depended on vast herds of llamas + alpacas| | * Hereditary chiefs of ayllus included women| | * Had hostage taking system for politics| * Each new ruler began his reign with conquest (legitimize authority)| | * Khipus = system of knotted colored cords used by preliterate| | Andean peoples to transmit information| | * Did not produce new technologies; increased economic output| | * Civil war weakened the Inca on the eve of European arrival| | | | | | | | | | | | | * Noticed that primary gods for many societies were Sun gods and agricultural gods| * Pressures from inside took out the Inca society; similar to other societies| * Khipus = similar to the one that Aztecs used| | |

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