CYPOP 4: Promote young children’s physical activity and movement skills 1. 1 Explain why physical activity is important to the short and long term health and well being of children Physical activity is important to the short term and long term health and well being of children. In the short term physical activity helps children to build muscle, develops the skeletal frame, develops the heart and lung function and helps prevent obesity. If children have enough physical activity a day which is said to be up to an hour it can help children get to sleep easier and sleep for longer periods of time.
This can lead onto long term benefits as if the activity is outside it will also help to build up a good immune system so they are less likely to fall ill to the common cold or the flu. The outdoor environment helps the overall well being of the children as the outdoors makes them feel free which helps their emotional and social development, as it allow them to learn new skills and develop confidence in playing alongside others. In the long term physical activity helps the children to become interested in sports and outdoor activities.
This is a good foundation to build when the children are young because as they grow older children and young adults start to become less active so early physical activity is more beneficial for the child in the long term. If when children are young and do not take part in physical activity it is more likely that they will become obese later on in life which in turn could end up with them getting more serious diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cancer or heart diseases, it could also result in girls having osteoporosis later on in life. Physical activity does not mean expense.
This could be that you go for walks in the local area and make it fun by having skipping/hopping/running races between lampposts etc and taking a ball so you can call at the local park for a kick around. This could also incorporate a nature trip to collect and see things, so children may not realise how far they are going. Indoor activities could include wii fit hour, which I incorporate as every child can have a go. There is also ‘keepy uppy’, which is a balloon that you pass around so it doesn’t touch the floor or musical statues for movement and balance. 1. Explain the development of movement skills in young children and how these skills affect other aspects of development. 89 CYPOP 4 1. 2 In order to achieve the physical skills required for the areas in the spider diagram, a mixture of movement skills need to be acquired in the right order. They include the following: Hand-Eye Coordination. Many activities require hands and eyes to work together. To catch a ball, for example, the brain needs to take information from the eyes and use it to inform the movements that have to be made with the hands. Foot – Eye coordination.
Children have to learn to guide their feet. Climbing stairs and kicking a ball require this type of coordination. Balance. Balance is a complicated skill. Although it is one that most people take for granted. The ability to balance develops with age, with most children relying on visual input to balance. The development of these skills follows the development of the central nervous system (principally the brain and spinal cord) in babies and young children. The central nervous system is responsible for collecting, interpreting and sending out information to all parts of the body.
Information is constantly collected via the body’s senses of taste, touch, smell, sight and hearing. This information is then transformed into electrical pulses that are carried by the nerves, up through the spinal cord and into the brain. From the information received, the brain then responds and sends out instructions to muscles, glands and organs using the network of nerves again. The whole process is surprisingly quick, which means the body can take action against possible danger, for example, a person will instantly withdraw their hand from something that is very hot.
In babies and young children the central nervous system has to mature. At first babies are reliant on the many survival reflexes they are born with. These are automatic reactions, but in order to gain control, the central nervous system has to learn how to interpret and control these responses. Gaining physical control. The rate at which babies and children gain control over their bodies varies enormously, but it is recognised that there are three key principles that underpin the gaining of control. Development follows a definite sequence.
Movements and control develop in a certain pattern, which means that babies cannot walk before leaning to sit unsupported. Development begins with the control of head movements and proceeds downwards and outwards. Babies first gain control of their head and top of the spine before other parts of the body. This is thought to be a survival mechanism as it is important for babies to be able to turn their heads to feed. 90 CYPOP 4 1. 2 Development begins with uncontrolled gross motor movements before becoming precise and refined.
Babies gain control over their arms before managing to control their hands and fingers. This principle is an important one to remember when teaching children new skills, such as handwriting, as it means that they will need to start making large letter shapes before using pencils to make much smaller ones. |AGE |HAND-EYE COORDINATION |MOVEMENT SKILL | |3 months |Can find hands and bring to mouth. Looks |Kicks legs strongly and moves arms. | |at and plays with fingers |Movements less jerky although not | | | |coordinated Can lift and turn head from | | | |side to side when laying on front | |6 months |Grasps objects |Begin to roll over Pulls up legs with | | |Follows adults movements |hands when on back Pushes head, neck and | | | |chest off floor when on front | |9 months |Bangs objects together |Sits up well unsupported reaches out for | | | |toys may be crawling or shuffling on | | | |bottom | |12 months |Picks up objects with thumb and |Mobile either crawling, shuffling or | | |forefinger points to objects holds cup |rolling Sits up unsupported for long | | |with help |periods walks with assistance tries to | | | |crawl upstairs | |15 months |Holds and drinks from cup with two hands |Crawls downstairs feet first Walks | | |Builds tower of two bricks |independently Seats self in small chair | |18 months |Threads four large beads |Bends down from waist to pick up objects | | |Turns door knobs and handles |Squats down to look at objects, Rolls and| | |Pulls off shoes and hat |throws a ball, Walks downstairs with | | | |adult help,
Pushes and pulls toys while | | | |walking | |2 years |Uses a spoon to feed themselves |Kicks a ball that is not moving, Climbs | | |Puts on shoes |on low climbing frame, Walks up and | | |Builds a tower of 5/6 blocks |downstairs confidently | |3 years |Uses a spoon and ford, puts on and takes |Walks and runs forward, Walks on tiptoes,| | |off coat, Turns pages in a book one by |Throws large ball, Kicks ball forward, | | |one |Jumps from low steps, Pedals and steers | | | |tricycle | | | | | | | | | |4 Years |Buttons and unbuttons own clothing, puts |Walks on a line Aims and throws a ball, | | |together 12 piece jigsaw |Bounces and catches a large ball, runs | | | |changing direction, Hops on one foot, | | | |Pedals and steers a tricycle confidently | |5 years |Forms letters Dresses and undresses |Skips with a rope, Runs quickly and is | | |easily, Cuts out shapes with scissors, |able to avoid obstacles, Is able to use a| | |Draws round a template |variety of equipment, e. g. swings and | | | |slides, Hits ball with bat or stick | The development of movement skills gives children independence. Over time, they are no longer reliant on adults to physically feed them, clothe them and move them from one place to another. This gives children great confidence and also allows them to learn because they can now explore. Children are also able to use their new found skills to play more challenging games and also play together.
The diagram below shows physical skills link to other aspects of children’s overall development. Griffin S 2010 Children and Young Peoples Worksforce 1st Ed Portsmouth Heinemann92 ———————– Travel (travelling movements where the child moves from one point to another such as running, jumping, skipping) Object Control (movements such as throwing, catching, dribbling which involve objects being sent, received, travelled with) MOVEMENT SKILLS Balance & Coordination Cognitive Development Much of children’s learning is linked to practical activities. This requires movement skills. There seems also to be a link between early physical movements and brain movements Physical Skills
Language Development Language develops when there are things to talk about. This is made easier when children can do things or move themselves to explore or see things. It gives them a reason to talk. Social Development Play in children’s early years is quite active rather than language based e. g. playing in sand, dressing up. Children can join in if they have developed the physical skills Emotional Development Builds children’s confidence. When children can do things for themselves, they are more likely to gain confidence. They can do things how and when they want. Children can also use physical skills to explore themselves e. g. draw, paint, dance
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