1.0 The Research Topic
The general field in which the research will derive from is brand image and the particular domain of this field in which the research will focus on will be that of consumer behaviours i.e. their purchasing decisions towards a particular brand or store and how they perceive brands. The primary aim of the research is to determine how brand image, essentially, combines with that of consumer behaviour through a range of mediums, looking at the consumer perspective. Therefore brand image, perception and consumers purchasing decisions will be explored in greater detail, thus allowing them to be critically analysed and compared with one another.
Brand image and consumer behaviour is a relatively large field in terms of its literate context; therefore this will be narrowed down by focusing on two areas of consumer behaviour, their purchasing decisions and what influences this and their perceptions of a brand/product and so forth. It is also the intention to focus on a particular industry, in this case the portable audio industry. Furthermore the research will make particular reference to one of the more recognised brands, Apple, which effectively has a substantial brand association with consumers due to the popularity of the I-Pod and most recently the I-Phone. Additionally, this will incorporate and touch on several other brands such as Sony and Archos, whom both operate in the portable audio industry.
The reasoning behind carrying out such research is due to the familiarisation, not only with the brand Apple, but also with consumer behaviours. Having worked in retail for over 3 years the experiences have brought about a diverse range of customers who have demonstrated similar behavioural patterns when it comes to their purchasing decisions, but there have of course been some customers who behave differently when making a purchasing decision. Furthermore, having studied marketing for the best part of 5 years at GCSE, A-Level and degree level, a keen interest in specific areas of branding has been established. As a result, in part-time work whereby there is a sole responsible for ones self which entails driving the own brand products of the store, ensuring that sales remain strong, that the brand gains recognition and builds it’s reputation through various forms of media including advertising, word of mouth and so forth. In doing so, consumer responsiveness has unquestionably been a captivating, nevertheless encouraging experience, thus leading to the reasoning behind the selected research topic. Read also Research Proposal sample on customer satisfaction
Due to the passion for Branding, mainly stemmed from part-time work the decision is to base a large part of the dissertation on the concept of branding, in particular brand image. Moreover it is extremely important that consumer’s perceptions, purchase decisions are adhered to in order to supply them with their specific needs and wants. Therefore being in a competitive retail environment where consumers have a wide range of products to choose from it is felt that by focusing on brand image an organisation can help to gain competitive advantage by ensuring repeat purchases of a brand. As a result,
using these tools and putting them into practice within the part-time place of work would not also enhancing ones belief, but also knowledge of brand image.
2.0 Research Aim
The primary aim of the research is to define brand image and consumer behaviour, moreover perception and purchasing decisions and how the two associate with one another, with reference to the portable audio industry and the brand Apple.
3.0 Research Objectives
The main research objectives in which the dissertation will focus upon are to:
Define and explain brand image through use of theoretical material
To explore and elucidate consumer behaviour with particular reference to that of perception and purchasing decisions.
To identify the brand image of Apple and how consumers perceptions of this chosen brand effect their purchasing decision
To compare the quantitative and qualitative data gathered, thus allowing to critically analyse the two and conclude on a best practice
4.0 Review of the Literature
The purpose of the literature review is the examination of the identified problem in order to determine its causal factors, as established by both theoretical and empirical research.
It is therefore the intention to review the two main components as to which my research will discuss and critically evaluate, that of ‘consumer behaviour’ and ‘brand image’. In order to review the literature, a considerable amount of time
has been spent looking through journals, articles, texts and so forth in the last few months and in doing so selected a few texts and journals which are most relevant to the research and which can therefore be discussed and critically evaluated.
The study of consumer behaviour has been given increasing attention in the context of an expansion of the study of marketing and marketing research over the past few decades (e.g. Kotler et al., 2001; Jobber, 2004; Keith, 1960).
However, despite rapid growth and development in the study of consumer behaviour, there are considerable disagreements about what consumer research is, what its objectives are, and how it differs from other disciplines (Simonson et al., 2001). Consequently, the field lacks a universally-accepted
theoretical framework or model (Foxall, 2005). The disciplines of economics and psychology (especially cognitive and social) have traditionally provided
the theoretical foundations of consumer behaviour and lent their research towards more cognitive approaches (Jacoby et al., 1998).
It is the intention of this dissertation to examine a wide range of theories that underpin the topic consumer behaviour and brand identity, with particular references as to how the two link together. There will a specific reference to the company Apple, which is one of the world largest brands due to constant innovation and exhaustive market research.
Consumer behaviour is defined by Blackwell, Miniard & Angel (2001) as “activities people undertake when obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services”. My primary aim is to unearth how consumers of portable audio products respond to the plethora of buying decisions they are faced and in turn what particular factors influence such a decision.
Below, is a simple model of consumer behaviour drawn up by Assael, 1992:-
At the core of this model is the consumer’s decision and as we can see, this decision has been effected by the individual’s thoughts and also environmental issues. It is therefore these factors that are able to persuade the consumer to decide upon one brand, product or service rather than another.
There are many forms of perception, some of which include self-perception, perceived risk, product, price and communicational perception; however that of self-perception will be discussed in detail.
Consumer’s self perception stems from the belief that consumers choose products that are consistent with their perceptions of themselves and reject those which are incongruous with them (Sirgy 1982).
Two self concepts have been employed extensively in consumer research: actual self image, which refers to the entire way in which the individual sees himself, his evaluation and description of himself, and ideal self-image, which is the individual’s perception of what he, should aspire to become (e.g. Green et al. 1969; Grubb and Stern 1971; Hughes and Guerrero 1971; Hughes and Naert 1970). In the last 20 years, the individual’s social self-concept, the image he or she would like others to have of themselves, has received research attention (Malhotra 1988; Sirgy 1980).
Malhotra defines self concept as; the totality of the individuals thoughts and feelings having reference to them as subjects as well as objects. Hence, self-concept includes (a) the self as knower, or subject, or I, i.e. the process of active experiencing. Furthermore, the ideal self (the person I would like to be) and actual self (the person that I believe myself to be) are important components of this multi dimensional construct (Malhotra 1988:7).
Later researches have continued by widening the scope of self-concept consumer research by looking at a variety of products, despite weak results, the research was particularly supportive of the hypothesis that consumers prefer, intend to buy or use brands/products which are more congruent with their self concepts (Malhotra 1988:5-6). However, Pollay, 1986 argues that the matching of self-image to goods and services embraces not only product attributes but promotional, distributive and pricing elements of the marketing mix. Additionally, advertising portrays products and brands that may attain their ideal selves as a result (Pollay 1986).
Despite this, some studies have produced results that contradict the general pattern, in particular Schewe and Dillon. Their investigations into self-concept, found little difference between actual, ideal and social self concept. However, the reconceptualisation of self-concept as a multi-dimensional construct has shown that these differences are valid and potentially capable of being incorporated into marketing strategies based on the segmentation of consumer’s image-based preferences.
There are numerous other forms of perception, ranging from price perception, store perception, subliminal perception and perceived risk, which will be discussed and critically compared with other research within the body extended literature review.
4.2 Purchasing Decisions
There are a number of theories surrounding a persons purchasing decision, the most common of which is repeat purchases. This is where repeated problem solving or habitual decision making takes place. Repeat purchases often require problem solving, i.e. dissatisfaction derived from a previous purchase (Kotler et al, 2005), which often results in a change of brand or when a retailer is out of stock of a particular item. Therefore a consumer will weigh the consequences of investing time and energy in finding an alternative product.
Habitual decision making takes different forms depending on the decision process followed in the initial purchase. For example customers will have certain expectations about the products they purchase and the retailers from whom they buy. The satisfaction that customer will experience when they expectations are met or even exceeded often results in loyalty towards that product or retailer. Typically inertia is the opposite of this and this exists when there is little or no consumer loyalty taking place. Consumers can be easily swayed, for instance a particular product is lowered in price or on promotion. (Enhrenhberg and Goodhardt, 1979).
Some earlier models of consumer response to such mediums as advertising failed to distinguish trial from repeat purchase and they therefore depict the effects of advertising in terms of a sequence of pre-purchase mental states, linking to the habitual purchase theory (Kotler et al, 2005). However, Lavidge and Steiner argue that consumer’s evaluations of competing brands could be carried out even before a purchase had been made on the basis of information supplied by the marketer, not simply by the consumer’s mental state. They argue that when brands are low, it is the consumers experience with the brand that counts and that during a period of trial which may involve several purchases which eventually determine whether it becomes part of the repertoire from which regular purchases are indeed made. (Lavidge and Steiner, 1961 & Colley (1961).
In addition, impulse buying is a more recent theory introduced by Engal introduced a theory which has brought about many arguments amongst well known theorists in the field. Impulse buying derives from an unplanned, spur-of-the-moment action which is often triggered by product displays or point-of-sale promotions within retail stores. The main characteristics of this theory are a sudden and spontaneous desire to act accompanied by urgent, emotional considerations dominate and also there is a lack of regard for consequences as it is something that is not necessarily needed, but seemed attractive at the time. (Engal et al.1990)
The figure below shows four categories of purchasing patterns, ranging from brand loyalty to variety seeking. The diagram incorporates factors such as consumer loyalty, to brands and the number of brands purchased in a particular time period.
Number of Brands Purchased in a Given Time Period
Repeat purchase behaviour
Derived varied behaviour
4.3 Brand Image
Brand image refers to the organised set of perceptions consumers have formed about he brand. It is important because consumers use mental representations such as their perceptions to distinguish one brand from another and as the basis for their purchasing behaviours.
In marketing and consumer behaviour, perceptions are reality, so that brand images are of primary concern to marketers. Brand images are formed as consumers receive information from the media, from other consumers and from personal experience with brands. Brand image, though quite complex consists of several dimensions, which break down into brand personality, connotations, advantages, users and situations, and therefore some of which will be touched upon in the body of the literature review.
A brand’s personality describes what it is like- what impression does it make on the consumer; is it fashionable, lively, reliable and so forth. A brand’s personality is created through advertisement, naming and packaging. For example a black package associates sophistication, whilst a pastel package would signify the brand to by quite feminine and/or delicate.
A brand’s connotations are what a brand makes the consumer think of and also the image attempting to be portrayed. Dagnoli, looked at various advertisements to determine the image being portrayed, for example a Kool ad which used a cartoon penguin to suggest a hip or with-it message to potential smokers. In the past, Kool cigarettes have traditionally suggested the menthol taste, reinforced by both the name and the advertisement which have featured snow and running water. (Dagnoli, 1989)
Many researches of brand image have evaluated brands based only on one feature i.e. quality or price. However, more recent research has looked at a more complex theory, where several dimensions are considered. This theory is a multidimensional measurement of a product space for a set of brands which is generated by a family of statistical techniques called multidimensional scaling (Churchill 1991: 448-464).
Taking the above into consideration a multidimensional map was created and therefore used in latter research. The map allowed for consumers to compare pairs of competing brands with one another for preference or similarity purposes or simply by rating them. This of course signals that there is more than one factor taken on board by the consumer and there is a greater thought process involved when selecting one brand over another.
Brand A (X) Brand D (X)
High Durability Low Durability
Brand C (X)
Brand B (X)
When compared with a latter model created by Keller, the above model which only taken into consideration two or three factors were greatly scrutinised and as a result a plethora of factors were then added to produce a more complex model involving more thought processes such as attitudes, personality, experiences and so forth.
Summary of Brand Knowledge Model (Keller, 1998)
4.4 The Apple Brand
Apple Inc is a US multinational corporation with a focus on designing and manufacturing consumer electronics and software products. The company’s best-known hardware products include the Macintosh line of personal computers, the iPod line of portable media players, and the iPhone. Apple’s software products include the Mac OS X operating system, iTunes media browser, the iLife suite of multimedia and creativity software, and Final Cut Studio, a suite of professional audio- and film-industry software products. The company operates more than 200 retail stores in eight countries and an online store where hardware and software products are sold.
On October 23, 2001, Apple introduced the iPod digital music player. It has evolved to include various models targeting the needs of different users. The iPod is the market leader in portable music players by a significant margin, with more than 100 million units shipped as of April 9, 2007. Apple currently sells four variants of the iPod:
iPod classic, portable media player introduced in 2001, with 120GB capacity.
iPod nano, portable media player introduced in 2005, available in 8 and 16 GB models.
iPod shuffle, digital audio player introduced in 2005, available in 1 and 2 GB models.
iPod touch, portable media player introduced in September 2007, available in 8, 16 and 32 GB models.
At the Macworld Conference & Expo in January 2007, Steve Jobs revealed the long anticipated iPhone, a convergence of an Internet-enabled smartphone and iPod. The iPhone combines a 2.5G quad band GSM and EDGE cellular phone with features found in hand held devices, running a scaled-down versions of Apple’s Mac OS X, with various Mac OS X applications such as Safari and Mail. It also includes web-based and Dashboard apps such as Google Maps and Weather. The iPhone features a 3.5-inch (89 mm) touch screen display, 4 or 8 GB of memory, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi (both “b” and “g”).
Marketer Marc Gobe, author of Emotional Branding, said Apple’s brand is the key to its survival. It’s got nothing to do with innovative products like the iMac or the iPod. “Without the brand, Apple would be dead,” he said. “Absolutely. Completely. The brand is all they’ve got. The power of their branding is all that keeps them alive. It’s got nothing to do with products.”
A recent study by Satmetrix Systems ranked Apple as the computer company with the highest customer loyalty. Satmetrix sought to discover how likely customers were to recommend the company to a friend or colleague, creating a proprietary Net Promoter Score for each company. If that wasn’t enough for Apple, an annual Harris Poll of “best brands” put Apple in the top ten for the first time. The Harris Poll surveyed 2,351 US adults online and asked each to name the three brands they considered best. No list of brands was made available to the participants. Apple’s successful branding finds it in the company of Sony, Dell, Coca-Cola, Toyota, Ford, Honda, HP, GE, and Kraft.
Above all, Apple’s simplicity, attention to detail, ease of use, creative thinking, and an absence of jargon are all messages conveyed through these products. Steve Jobs has said that Apple’s position in the computer industry makes it possible to design a product from scratch. By controlling both software and hardware, Apple can integrate their products more tightly, providing an advantage over PC companies like Dell and Gateway.
Brand messages are supported by other aspects of the company’s activities as well. The first-time visitor to the Apple Web site is left with an impression distinct to the Apple brand. The site is clear and easily navigable, and it manages to avoid clutter and technical terminology. With Apple, the impression you’re left with matches the experience of the product. Anyone who has received a new iPod will tell you of the beauty of the packaging, its simplicity and attention to detail tying in with the product itself. Buying from the Apple online store, the purchasing experience, the packaging, and finally the product itself and its functions, all fit into Apple’s carefully constructed brand promise. That’s one of Apple’s major strengths – the company maintains its brand promise from the customer’s research phase on the Web site, through the online store purchasing experience, and all the way to the point where he or she unpacks and starts using the product.
The power of the Apple brand, and in turn the perception of it, is that Apple can clearly state that they are different and deliver on that pledge. In deciding on a computer, the consumer must believe in the brand, to buy into a style or an attitude. However, this not for all, since many people prefer to fit in or stay well behind the cutting edge. However, Apple uniquely owns this territory in the computer market and it’s an invaluable part of the Apple brand. Thanks to the Apple Stores, Apple can bridge that concluding gap linking brand and consumer and no longer be dependent on third-party translation of the messages they are trying to send. Read also Research Proposal sample on customer satisfaction
Research methodology references the procedural rules for the evaluation of research claims and the validation of the knowledge gathered, while research design functions as the research blueprint (Creswell, 2003). As Sekaran (2003) further clarifies, research methodology may be defined as academia’s established regulatory framework for the collection and evaluation of existent knowledge for the purpose of arriving at, and validating, new knowledge Research scholars have identified three main purposes to the research activity. These are the exploratory, the descriptive and the explanatory purposes (Saunders et al., 2000). Exploratory research unfolds through focus group interviews, structured or semi-structured interviews with experts and a search of the relevant literature (Saunders et al., 2000). Its primary purpose is the exploration of a complex research problem or phenomenon, with the objective being the clarification of the identified complexities and the exposition of the underlying nature of the selected phenomenon.
Punch (2000) explains the purpose of the descriptive research as the collection, organisation and summarisation of information about the research problem and issues identified therein. Descriptive research entails the thorough examination of the research problem, for the specified purpose of describing the phenomenon, as in defining, measuring and clarifying it (Dane, 1990).
Taking the above into consideration both desk research and field research will be carried out in this dissertation to ensure the robustness of the study as a whole. The desk research will examine and analyse previous researcher’s theories and published literature, thus allowing for a clear constructive argument either in favour or against some of the previous research or established approaches.
Field research will come in the form of a focus group and also a questionnaire in order to support my own argument(s) regarding consumer behaviour and brand image. The focus group will consist of approx 6-8 people and last no longer than 45 minutes; each individual will be presented with various photographic images and in turn questioned about what they have been shown. The focus group discussion would be moderated by a skilled individual who will ensure that none of the respondents deviate from the main purpose of discussion; however, respondents would be allowed to talk freely about and to comment on the photographs. Thus this will enable to extract the inner most perception of the respondents to be documented to further enhance the authenticity of our study.
Dependent upon the success of this, a 2nd and 3rd focus group may take place to ensure consistency; again this will consist of approximately 6-8 respondents and entail a similar process. It is hoped that the focus group will help to pick up on each person’s perceptions of the brand(s) they are presented with and how they associate with those particular brands.
The questionnaire will take the form of stratified sampling of proximately 250 respondents, whereby people of all ages and genders will be asked a series of questions relating to consumer behaviours and brand identity within the portable audio market. The reason for using this particular method is because this method allows for the breakdown of information. In this instance the data collected can be broken down so that occurring trends can easily be recognised and in turn analysed. In addition, these particular types of sampling are because it allows for up-to-date and accurate results, thus allowing for easier statistical analysis.
For example, the data can be split into gender, age groups or more specifically as a percentage of those who are female, aged 16-25 and shop on a regular basis. Questions would therefore include; do you as a consumer regularly buy a particular product or brand and if so, what is the reasoning behind such a purchase decision? Such factors would therefore include price, appearance/style, brand of the product, features of the product and so forth.
Upon completion of this particular research a statistical analysis programme SPSS will be used, thus allowing for the collected data to be produced in graphical form, making the data far more coherent and comparable with previous research carried out on my chosen subject.
As the focus group will be recorded, the information will be interpreted and written down word for word. This information will then by analysed for any reoccurring themes. For example, if during the focus group individuals associations with Apple products are similar; this would be a re-occurring theme and would therefore be a solid talking point within the data analysis.
5.1 Limitations to Research
The only major limitation to the research is that of time, therefore it is critically important that careful planning and use of time is adhered to. Selectivity is also of importance, with regards to the use of previous research, as a result, the research used within the dissertation must be relevant and aid the argument being portrayed. Therefore a large amount of research and time must be spent reading through texts/journals and so forth in order to establish which information will benefit the dissertations research.
5.2 Anticipated Results
It is anticipated that due to the methods of research being adopted, the results achieved will be both accurate and therefore reliable. It is expected that there will be a strong correlation between those individuals who are frequent purchasers of one particular brand or store and those who have store rewards/loyalty cards. Thus such a comparison will be made once the results of the questionnaires and focus groups is collected and then rigorously analysed for any possible trends.
5.3 Resources Needed
To carry out certain tasks there will be a need for a few essential resources. The first of which, will be access to a rather large classroom with access to a computer in which to carry out the focus group, a room big enough to accommodate the 6-8 people that will participate. The focus group will be recorded, so access to a voice recorder or video camera would be extremely useful for future reference.
5.4 Credibility of Research Findings
Ultimately, the data collected is used to form up the draft(s) for the research findings. If the data is not verifiable, the implication is that the findings are potentially deficient; therefore all collected data would be cross-checked and validated by various means. Accordingly, it is incumbent upon the researcher to validate his/her findings (Sekaran, 2003).
In summary, it is vitally important that the previous research I use to support my own research is credible and strengthens my case or I have gathered enough proof to counter any established theories and findings. I must therefore by very selective in terms of what data I choose to incorporate into my dissertation.
A study is reliable only if another researcher, using the same procedure and studying the same phenomenon, arrives at similar, or comparable, findings (Sekaran, 2003).
Even with the best of intentions in mind, the researcher is often confronted with a variety of variables which may impinge upon the reliability of his findings. Quite simply stated, if he is partly drawing conclusions on the basis of questionnaire and interview data, it could very well be that respondents were biased or, simply not in the mood to answer the questions with any degree of interest. It is not at all uncommon for respondents to simply tick of response options without reading or considering them (Sekaran, 2003).
The reliability is something which I intend to take into serious consideration. As a result my chosen method of sampling for my questionnaire is one of the more reliable methods in which my approach is not biased and is not selective in any shape or form. The respondents in which I will select will have to show a willingness to participate in the study and will be given ample time to answer their questionnaires, thus allowing for their answers not to be rushed and blindly answered. In addition, the focus group will again be selective, with people of all ages, allowing for a non-biased outcome, thus supporting my reliability of the collected data. To enhance the reliability of the current research, the above shall be considered and meticulously applied.
Saunders et al. (2000) contends that a research is valid only if it actually studies what it set out to study and only if the findings are verifiable. The
validity of the research concerns the research design and that it fully addresses the research aims and objectives. It is therefore extremely important that the dissertation requires a vast amount of planning and preparation, with a primary focus on the research aims, ensuring that they are fully satisfied. It is therefore the intention that the research aims remain attainable and be thoroughly discussed, analysed and evaluated throughout the course of the dissertation.
As may have been deduced from the above, the research shall adopt a mixed methodological approach. The selection of the above explained methodology was imposed upon the research by the nature of the phenomenon under investigation, the multi-layered nature of the research problem and the imperatives of satisfying the study’s diverse, but interrelated, objectives.
7.0 Schedule and Budget
Below is a gannt chart to show the timescale which is to be used throughout the course of the dissertation, taking into account the various meetings with a dissertation tutor and also hand in dates.
Submission of Research Proposal
Meeting with supervisor
Research Aims ; Objectives
Meeting with supervisor
Focus Group taking place
Distribution of questionnaires
Meeting with supervisor
Collection ; Analysing of questionnaires
Submit Draft Dissertation
References ; Bibliography
Foxall, G. R. (1990) Consumer Psychology in Behavioural Perspective. London and New York: Routledge
Engel, J. F., Blackwell, R. D., ; Miniard, P. W. (1995). Consumer Behaviour, 8th Ed. Chicago: Dryden Press.
Foxall, G. R. ; James, V. K. (2003). The behavioural ecology of brand choice: how
and what do consumers maximise? Psychology and marketing, 20, 811-836.
Foxall, G. R., ; Schrezenmaier, T. C. (2003). The behavioural economics of consumer brand choice: Establishing a methodology. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 675-695.
Markoff, John (January 9, 2007). “New Mobile Phone Signals Apple’s Ambition”. The New York Times
Alexandru M. Degeratu, International Journal of Research in Marketing, Volume 17, Issue 1, 31 March 2007, Pages 55-78, Consumer choice behavior in online and traditional supermarkets: The effects of brand name, price, and other search attributes
Klowden, Tanya (July 12 2006), Apple Shines at customer loyalty and branding, Ars Technica
Gordon R Foxall, Jorge M Oliveira-Castro, Victoria K James, Teresa C Schrezenmaier, August 2007 in Management Online Review, Consumer Behaviour Analysis and the Behavioural Perspective Model
Foxall (1998) Ronald E Goldsmith and Stephen Brown, Consumer Psychology for Marketing, International Thomson Business Press,
Keller, K (1998) Strategic Brand Management. Prentice Hall. New Jersey
Sirgy J, M (1980) Social Cognition and Consumer Behaviour, Praeger
White, B (2000) Dissertation Skills for Business and Management Students, Thomson Learning
Blackwell D, Roger, Miniard W, Paul ; Engel F, James (2001), Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition, South Western, Thomson Learning
Mowen C, John (2000) the 3M Model of Motivation and Personality, Theory and Empirical Applications to Consumer Behavior, Kluwer Academic Publishers
Philip Kotler ; Gary Armstrong (2005) Principles of Marketing, Prentice Hall.
Consumer Behaviour Dissertation Questionnaire
This questionnaire is to assist with an ongoing dissertation regarding consumer behaviour and brand image, if you could answer the questions both honestly and accurately, then return the form as soon as possible.
(1) Are you male of female?
Please circle one
(2) Approximately, what age group do you fall into?
Please circle one
(3) How often do you shop for consumer goods?
Please circle one
Once a month
Once a week
A few times a week
(4) Do you shop frequently with one particular store/brand?
Please circle one
(5) What prompts you to do the above?
Please circle one
Quality of product
Price of product
(6) Are you a member of any company loyalty schemes?
Please circle one
If yes, please circle the following, if not listed then please state ‘Other’
Please circle one or more
Tesco Club card
Marks ; Spencer’s
(7) Have you ever bought a product on impulse, an unplanned purchase?
Please circle one
(8) What prompted you to do so? (If You answered ‘No’ to (7) then skip this question)
Please circle one
(9) Have you ever regretted buying a product that was unplanned?
Please circle one
(10) Which of the following brands would you associate with most?
Please circle one
(11) Do you like the above state brand because of its
Please circle one
Ease of Use
(12) Are these brands owned by your close-ones?
Please circle one
(13) DO you own a product of the stated brand?
Please circle one
Thank you for completing the questionnaire, your feedback is greatly appreciated!
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