Differentiate the following terms and provide an image obtained from a book or the Internet which clearly illustrates this term (reference your source).
Differentiate between the process of cytokinesis in plant and animal cells. Provide an image from a text or the Internet which clearly illustrates each of these processes (reference your sources).
It was stated in the content that the mechanism by which the sister chromatids are drawn away from each other towards opposite poles of the cells by the spindle fibres, is unknown. Do some research to detemine how some cell biologists believe this occurs. Provide references.
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How would a pair of sister chromatids differ from homologous chromosomes?
If the reproductive cell only has 23 chromosomes, then how come all of our body cells (somatic cells) have 46 chromosomes?
Briefly describe the constituent molecules found within a chromosome. You may use a diagram to illustrate your answer. Reference your sources.
What is a gene? What is a genome? What does a gene do?
How many genes (approximately) does the human genome contain?
Describe the labratory technique of decanting.
What happened to Rosalind Franklin with respect to her career following the discovery of the chemical nature of DNA?
Describe the structure of DNA in detail. Provide an additional image or images which clearly illustrate this structure. Reference your source.
With your knowledge of the chemical nature of DNA, briefly summarize how DNA replicates itself during interphase of the cell cycle.
What is the mechanism by which prokaryotic cells can adjust to their changing environments?
Name one advantage of this mechanism.
Predict what might happen if there was a mutation on the gene that coded for the synthesis of the repressor protein.
Identify the three components of an operon.
What turns the switch “off” on the lac operon?
What happens to the repressor protein to change its conformity and how does this affect the lac operon?
What do you think the term “regulatory protein” means?
What is the advantage of having one promoter to translate five genes?
What might happen if there was a mutation on the gene that coded for the synthesis of the repressor protein?
Fill in the following chart properly by picking the correct answers:
Repressor Bound to Operator
inactive or active? low or high? yes or no? Tryptophan made
inactive or active? low or high? yes or no? Tryptophan is NOT made
How are the lac operon and the trp operon similar in terms of repressor proteins? How are they different in terms of gene regulation?
Name two methods scientists use to clone genetic material.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the PCR method?
What would happen if you forgot to add a primer to the PCR method?
Research the Canadian regulations on genetically modified organisms (GMO’s). Check for information from the following websites:
Food and Health Canada
What do you think about the regulations on GMO’s? What do these agencies have to say about GMO’s? Write a short paragraph explaining the possible benefits and risks of these advances in genetic engineering.
The term genomic equivalence refers to the following:
single plant cell can give rise to an entire plant
that all cells in a multi-cellular organism have the same genetic code
differentiated cells migrate to different areas
Name the characteristics of a stem cell.
What are the 3 important processes of embryonic development?
What is the difference between a totipotent and a pluripotent stem cell?
What would be an advantage of having totipotent cells beyond the early embryonic stage in a mammal’s development?
How has the discovery of the universality of DNA affected society? What are some ethical issues that surround this field of study? Comment on current issues of stem cell research.
What do you think are some of the implications for society due to the rapid advantages of genetic technology? State at least one benefit and one concern in your answer.
How many different sheep were involved in the cloning of Dolly? Why was the use of this many different sheep important to the reliability of the experiment in terms of universality of the genetic code?
Detailed explanation: NO
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