response 1 part 2
A developmental assumption of racial/ethnic identity is the benefits of being prepared for discrimination (Quintana, 2007). Racially stigmatized youth need to develop an awareness and understanding of the racial discrimination they will experience. In short, the argument is that youth need to develop not only a positive group orientation but also the resources to buffer against racial-ethnic discrimination (Quintana, 2007). Under certain circumstances, there are disadvantages to adolescents developing a strong connection to their racial-ethnic group. These circumstances are associated with contexts in which there is high exposure to discrimination (Quintana, 2007).